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    What do seals eat


     What do Seals Eat

    What do seals eat

    All seals are carnivorous marine mammals. Seals like to eat fish, squid,  cuttlefish, octopus, Nautiloidea,  cockles, scallops, clams, oysters, as well as sea birds, krill, crustaceans, and other bottom-dwelling invertebrates. Seals can hunt individually or collaboratively. When they hunt non-schooling fish or slow-moving prey, they typically use solitarily behavior. Seals usually swallow their whole prey underwater, but if the prey is large, the seal will tear the prey by taking it to the surface of the water. The Leopard seal is the main predator of penguins. Crabeater seals have cusped teeth which help them to remove the water before they swallow their planktonic food. The bearded seals like to eat clams, the ringed seals like crustaceans, and southern elephant seals like squid. The leopard seal hunt numerous other species, especially the crabeater seal. The great white shark, the tiger shark, and the mako shark as well as polar bears and the Killer whale are the major predators of seals. 

    Seals or Pinnipeds are natural groups of carnivorous, belonging to the order Carnivora. There are 34 extant seal species that comprise the earless seals, or true seals (Family Phocidae); the eared seals- sea lions and fur seals (Family Otariidae); Walrus (Family Odobenidae). There were also more than 50 extinct species that were described from fossils. According to "Seals World", 18 species of true seals are found on the earth. Six extant sea lion species are found on the earth as well as there is one extinct species such as the Japanese sea lion.

    what do elephant seals eat/ what do leopard seals/what do harp seals/what do harbor seals/what do monk seals/ what do hawaiian monk seals/what do hooded seals/what do Bearded seals/what do Grey seals/what do Ribbon seals/

    What do Elephant seals eat

    What do seals eat

    Elephant seals are earless seals, belonging to the Family Phocidae and are the largest extant carnivorans on the earth. Two species of Elephant seals are found, namely the northern elephant seal and the southern elephant seal. The northern elephant seals are found in the eastern Pacific Ocean and prefer to spend most of their time in seawater.

     Northern elephant seals consume different types of food like squid, lanternfish, jack salmon, krill, hyperiid,  rotifers,  copepods, water fleas, ratfish, small sharks, rays, etc. The male usually dives directly to the bottom of the ocean to catch prey but The female seals dive as deep as 500 m to 1750 m and stay there longer to hunt pelagic prey. Male Northern elephant seals prefer to forage along the continental shelf but females forage in the open ocean. Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light, which occurs largely in marine vertebrates and invertebrates. Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light, which occurs largely in marine vertebrates and invertebrates. This bioluminescence can facilitate their capture. The Northern elephant seals have a less developed echolocation system, but their whiskers are sensitive to vibration and are thought to play a role in the search for their prey.

    The Southern elephant seals are the largest and heaviest seals. The Southern elephant seals are found in the South Atlantic, in the south Indian Ocean, and sub-Antarctic islands of the Pacific Ocean. Elephant seals can stay on land for the longest periods of time than any other seals.

     The Southern elephant seals prefer to eat fish like lanternfish, cod icefish, as well as squid. For catching their prey, they dive frequently and each time they stay under the water for more than 20 minutes. They can dive to depths of 1300 to 3000 feet and have been recorded at depths of 7,835 feet. Seals spend a few minutes on the surface of the ocean to breathe. 

    They usually live alone. Male seals dive in the pelagic zones and also benthic zones for foraging but the females dive only in the pelagic zones. They consume glacial squid, Antarctic neosquid, sevenstar flying squid, greater hooked squid, mollusks, Gonatus antarcticus squid, as well as lanternfish, cod icefishes, crocodile icefish, grey rock cod, herring, deep-sea-smelts, krill, and algae.

    Types of Tigers

    What Do Bears Eat

    What do Mountain Lions Eat

    What Do Wolves Eat 

    What Do Eagles Eat

    What do Leopard seals eat

    What do seals eat

    The sea leopard or leopard seal is found in the Antarctic Ocean and is the second-largest seal species after the Southern elephant seal and the species in the genus Hydrurga. 

    Leopard seals mainly live in the Antarctic pack ice from 50˚S to 80S. Stray leopard seals were spotted off Australia, South Africa, South America as well as New Zealand coasts. These solitary animals live in ice packs all year round.

    The leopard seals primarily hunt a wide variety of creatures, including squid, krill, and fish as well as different species of penguins like King penguin, chinstrap penguin, and Adélie penguin, gentoo penguin, rockhopper penguin, and also emperor penguin. They rarely kill the other seal species the young southern elephant seals, Weddell seal, Ross seal, fur seal pups, crabeater seal, etc. 

     The leopard seals completely submerge in the water near the edge of the ice and wait for the penguins to enter the sea to hunt. Leopard seals have different feeding styles and they use suction to eat the krill.

    What do Harp seals eat

    What do seals eat

    The Harp Seal or Greenland Seal is a true seal, found in the Arctic Ocean as well as the northernmost Atlantic Ocean. The Harp seals prefer to eat several fish and invertebrate species, including Anacanthini fish like cod and other flat fish, as well as herring, capelin, krill, etc.

    Because of their reliance on pack ice for breeding, the harp seal range is limited to those areas where pack ice forms seasonally. Based upon their pupping locations, they are divided into three populations Northwest Atlantic, the White Sea or the Barents Sea, and the Greenland Sea. The breeding areas of the Northwest Atlantic population are located in eastern Canada. This population breeds in Newfoundland, on the coast of Labrador, near the Magdalen Islands. The other population breeds in eastern Greenland. The third population breeds in the White Sea, the north coast of Russia. 

    In Summer, the White Sea population hunt and eat krill, flatfish, Anacanthini fish, herring, capelin, and polar cod in the Barents Sea. Western N. Atlantic harp seals prefer to eat capelin, American plaice,  Arctic cod, Greenland halibut, etc. 

    What do harbor seals eat

    What do seals eat

    The harbor seal or common seal is the most widely distributed pinniped species. There are five subspecies of the harbor seal, found in Europe and western Asia, eastern Canada, and western North  America. They live in  North Seas,  northern Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and Baltic Sea. They swim 50km to 160 km in search of migratory fish. They prefer to eat salmon, Alosinae fish as well as mossbunker fish, anchovy fish, sea bass, cod, flatfish, mackerel, herring, merling, etc. Occasionally they consume squid, crabs, shrimp, and mollusks. Harbor seals also kill and eat a variety of ducks.

    What Do Turtles Eat

    What do Hippos Eat

    What Do Penguins Eat

    What do Lions Eat

    What do Dolphins Eat

     What do Monk seals eat

    What do seals eat

    Monk seals are found in tropical climates. There are two extant species of Monk seals-the Mediterranean monk seal and the Hawaiian monk seal but there was also an extinct species- the Caribbean monk seal, which was extinct in the 20th century. Currently, there are about 1,700 monk seals left on Earth.

     The Hawaiian monk seals are found in the Hawaiian archipelago. This earless seal species is the only seal species that lives in Hawaii. About 1400 Hawaiian monk seals are living on Earth and are considered an endangered species. Most Hawaiian monk seals are living around the northwest Hawaiian Islands and a small population can be found around the main Hawaiian Islands. They spend most of their time foraging and can dive to depths of 300 to 550meters. They have the ability to hold their breath for about 20 minutes.

    Hawaiian monks seals prefer to hunt and eat bony fish,  cephalopods, lobster,  squids, shrimps, some octopus species, eels as well as benthic fish, and pelagic fish. 

    The Mediterranean monk seal is an earless seal and the world's rarest pinniped species. Once they lived throughout the Northwest Atlantic Africa, coastlines of the Black Sea, into the Atlantic Ocean, and the islands including  Porto Santo island, Canary Islands, Desertas Islands, and Madeira Island. They are also found in the Cape Verde islands. 

    Nowadays, Mediterranean monk seals are survived in the Aegean Sea and in the Cabo Blanco area in the Atlantic Ocean.

    Mediterranean monk seals feed in shallow coastal waters and prefer to hunt and eat a variety of fish, octopus, eels, mollusks, lobsters, etc. They usually dive at depths up to 250 meters to catch benthic fish, and pelagic fish. It has even been observed lifting rock slabs in search of its prey.

    What do Hooded seals eat

    What do seals eat

    Hooded seals are endemic to the central and western North Atlantic. They live in pack ice and deep waters drifting in the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic. They prefer to live in the cold climates so they are found in the areas with pack ice like northeastern Newfoundland and Labrador, Jan Mayen island in Norway, the Davis Strait as well as the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

    The hooded seals prefer to eat krill, amphipods, Atlantic and Arctic cod, capelin, fish, Greenland halibut, redfish, herring, squid, mussels, sea stars, etc. Typically, hooded seals dive to depths of 325 to 1,950 feet in the ocean in search of food, but they can go over 3,280 feet and stay underwater for up to an hour. 

    What do Bearded seals eat 

    What do seals eat

    The bearded seals or the square flipper seals are the true seals and are found in the Arctic and subarctic regions. They are also found in the Chukchi Sea,  Bering Sea, and Beaufort seas, as well as  Canada, Russia, Alaska, Norway, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, the northern coast of Iceland, and Greenland.

    Bearded seals prefer to eat a variety of small prey like squid, sea anemones, crab, shrimp, fish, polychaete worms,  octopus, sculpins, sea cucumbers, arctic cod, clams, as well as pelagic and demersal fish. Adult bearded seals dive up to 300 m deep in shallow coastal areas to catch their benthic prey.

    What do Grey seals eat 

    What do seals eat

    Grey seals or Atlantic seals are "true seals" or "earless seals", live in the North Atlantic Ocean. Grey seals prefer to eat a variety of benthic or demersal fish species. They can dive up to  1,560 feet and can stay more than one hour under the water. They have excellent vision and hearing which help them to hunt their prey. They prefer to eat Sand eels,  herring, cod, flatfish, skates, lobsters,  octopus,  haddock, hake, crustaceans, as well as seabirds. They can consume about  5 kg of food daily but they do not eat every day and do not take any food during the breeding season.

    What do Ribbon seals eat 

    What do seals eat

    The ribbon seal belongs to the family Phocidae. They live in the Arctic and Subarctic regions of the North Pacific Ocean, and the southern parts of the Arctic Ocean.

    Their main diet is pelagic creatures, including North Atlantic marine fish, different ray-finned fish, squid, octopus, pollock, arctic cod as well as crustaceans. Ribbon seals dive to more than 200 meters in search of their favorite food.

    What do Grey seals eat

    Grey seals are true seals or earless seals, live in the North Atlantic ocean from the mid-Atlantic to the Baltic Sea. Three stocks of gray seals are found in the world. They are- the eastern North Atlantic stock,  the western North Atlantic stock, and the Baltic Sea stock. The western North Atlantic stock is found in the northeastern United States and in the coastal waters of Canada. The world's largest colony is at Sable Island, Canada. The eastern North Atlantic stock is found in Norway, Great Britain, Russia, and Denmark. 

    The grey seals eat a variety of benthic fish species or demersal fish. Their favorite food is sand eels. They also hunt and eat herring, cod, skates, flatfish, as well as octopus,  lobsters, etc. Recent studies suggest that gray seals also eat harbor seals and harbor porpoises.

    Types of Tigers


     Types of Tigers

    Types of Tigers

    From the point of view of morphology, tigers of different 

    regions are slightly different. Gene flow in the population of this region is thought to have been possible during the Pleistocene. When there is a transfer of genetic material from one population to another, called gene migration or gene flow, then only two tiger subspecies were proposed to be recognized - P. t. Sondaica, native to the Greater Sunda Islands, and Pt. tigris in mainland Asia. In 2015, all tiger sub-species were collectively analyzed which showed that there were two evolutionary groups, namely Sunda tigers and continental tigers. Continental tigers or Panthera tigris tigris are native to the Asian mainland, comprises with the Bengal tiger, Indochinese, Malayan, Amur tiger or Siberian tiger, South China tiger, and the extinct subspecies the  Caspian tiger. Although the South China tiger is considered virtually extinct. On the other hand, the Sunda tiger or Panthera tigris sondaica is native to the Sunda Islands in Indonesia, which includes the Sumatran tiger and the extinct subspecies Bali tiger and Javan tiger.

    In 2017, the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group recognized these two tiger populations but the researchers rejected them.

    "Complete genome sequencing" of 32 specimens in 2018 supports six monophyletic tiger clades consistent with the surviving subspecies.

    Two subspecies Panthera tigris tigris and Panthera tigris sondaica- 

    Panthera tigris tigris

    • Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris)

    • Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata)

    • Indochinese Tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti)

    • Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica)

    • Malayan tiger (Panthera tigris jacksoni/ Panthera tigris malayensis)

    • South China tiger(Panthera tigris amoyensis)

    Panthera tigris sondaica 

    1. Bali tiger (Panthera tigris balica)

    2. Javan tiger (Panthera tigris sondaica)

    3. Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae)

    Extant Species

    • Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris)

    • Indochinese Tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti)

    • Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica)

    • Malayan tiger (Panthera tigris jacksoni/ Panthera tigris malayensis)

    • South China tiger(Panthera tigris amoyensis)

    • Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae)

    Extinct species

    • Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata)

    • Bali tiger (Panthera tigris balica)

    • Javan tiger (Panthera tigris sondaica)

    Extant Species

    Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris)

    Types of Tigers

    Bengal tigers, one of the biggest cat species on the earth. In the 19th century, they were known as the Royal Bengal Tigers. Their scientific name is Panther tigris tigris and the word Panthera was taken from the Latin word "panthēra" and the Greek word "pánthēr”,

    Their body is covered with yellow to light orange fur but the abdomen and the inner parts of their limbs are white. They have dark brown to black stripes on their body. The average length of a male Bengal tiger ranges from 9 feet to 11 feet, including a 33 to 43 inches long tail and about 3 to 3.5 feet in height from the ground. The male Bengal tiger will weigh 385 to 574 pounds. The female tiger is smaller than the male.

    Bengal tigers are native to India, Nepal, Bangladesh, southern Tibet, and Bhutan. They prefer to live in subtropical deciduous forests and upland forests, alluvial grasslands,  tropical moist evergreen, and dry forests as well as temperate forests. 

    As carnivorous, Bengal tigers hunt and eat sambar, chital,  gaur, nilgai, hog deer, water buffalo, and wild boar, and occasionally hunt and kill the fox, dhole, jackal, etc.

    In India, the Bengal Tigers have no fixed mating and birth season but most cubs are born between December to May and October to November. A female tiger gives birth to one to four cubs, weighing 1.71 to 3.54 pounds. At the age of 2–3 years, the young tigers separate from the family group and establish their own home territory.

    The biggest threat to Bengal Tigers is poaching for their skin and other body parts like nails, teeth, etc. The other threats to the tigers are urbanization and revenge killing. They lose their natural habitat due to deforestation.

    Indochinese Tiger

    Types of Tigers

    The Indochinese tiger is smaller than the Bengal tiger and its scientific name is Panthera tigris corbetti, belonging to the family Falidae.

    The body of the Indochinese tiger is covered with

    golden-orange fur with black vertical stripes, but the abdomen and the inner parts of its limbs are white. They have white spots above their both eyes. Males can have an average length of about 250 to 290 cm and a weight of around 150 to 190 kg. Females are smaller than males.

    The Indochinese tigers are found in Vietnam,  Cambodia,

    Myanmar, China, Thailand, and Laos but more than half of the total population lives in the territory of the Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary in Thailand. During surveys in the Nam Et-Phou Louey National Reserve in Laos from 2013 to 2017, 14 tigers were recorded. In the past, these tigers lived in Yunnan province and Pemako County in China but now, there is probably no more here. The Indochinese tigers are shy and like to live alone in tropical rainforests, grasslands as well as mountains.

    The breeding season for Indochinese tigers is between November and April. After 16 weeks gestation period, a female tiger gives 2 to 6 born blind cubs, each weighing about 2 pounds. After 6 to 12 days the cubs first open their eyes and when they are about 18 or 24 months, they leave their mother territory and make their own territory. The life span of Indochinese tigers will be around 15 to 26 years.

    The Indochinese tigers hunt and eat wild boar, sambar, gaur, hog badger, porcupine, serow, langur, etc., and can consume up to 87 to 88 pounds in one meal.

    The Indochinese tigers are classified as endangered. The major threat to the tiger is poaching or illegal hunting, for their skin and other body parts. Tiger bone glue, also known as “Thailand tiger bone glue” is made by boiling tiger bones, which is a popular medicine among urban Vietnamese consumers but all illegal trade was banned in China, Vietnam, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore. Habitat loss due to deforestation is another threat to Indochinese tigers. Available data suggest that there are about 350 Indochinese tigers left on the earth.

    Siberian Tiger 

    Types of Tigers

    The Siberian tiger was also called the "Amur tiger", which is genetically close to the now extinct Caspian tiger. In the past, they lived throughout Siberia and the surrounding region, so they were often called Siberian tigers. In the 1830s, James Cowles Prichard coined the English name 'Siberian Tiger' 

    The body of the Siberian tiger is covered with moderately thick, coarse, and sparse reddish-tan fur with fewer, paler, black transverse stripes. They have white fur around the eyes, cheeks, snout, and inner legs. In winter, their dense, long, soft, and silky coat almost covers the ears, which helps to keep them warm. Their most developed neck fur layer or "scarf" and the extra fur on their paws protect them from cold and snow. Male Siberian tigers have an average head and body length of about 178 to 208 cm and an average tail length of 99 cm to 101 cm. Female is smaller than the male and the average length is 167 to 182 cm and an average tail length of 88 cm to 91 cm. In the wild, Siberian tigers can live up to 15 years but in captivity, their average lifespan is 16 to 18 years.

    The Siberian tigers are found in Northeast China,  the Sikhote-Alin mountain region in southwest Primorye Province in the Russian Far East, North Korea as well as in the international border area between Russia and China. A camera-trap survey from 2013 to 2018 found about 55 Siberian tigers in four forested mountain areas in northeastern China. Siberian tigers prefer to live in Korean pine forests, the taiga, and conifer forests. 

    The Siberian tiger is the most powerful and largest cat on the earth. their hind legs are longer than their front legs, with thick paws, helping them to jump a great distance in the air to capture their prey. Their 4 inches long claws and  2.5-3 inches long canine teeth allow them to latch on and prevent the prey from escaping. Siberian tigers hunt and eat Eurasian lynx, young and sub-adult Ussuri brown bears, and also smaller black bears. They prey on bears and only eat the bear's flesh, back, and groin, where fat is stored. The annual diet of the Siberian tiger consists of 2.1% small black bears and about 1.4% brown bears.

    Siberian tigers have no fixed mating time of the year. A female Siberian tiger spends 4 to 6 days with the male. After 3 to 3½ months of gestation, she gives birth to two to four cubs in the den. At 48 to 60 months of age, males reach sexual maturity. Siberian tigers are solitary animals and always try to avoid contact with humans. 

    Poaching is the biggest threat to Siberian tigers. Siberian tigers are classified as endangered on the IUCN Red List. In August 2010, China and Russia agreed to increase the protection of the Siberian tiger, resulting in China starting to celebrate the first “Global Tiger Day” in July 2010. 

    Malayan tiger

    Types of Tigers

    Malayan tiger, also known as the southern Indochinese tiger and called “harimau” in the Malay language. Their scientific name Panthera tigris jacksoni and the word  Jacksoni honors Peter Jackson who was a British tiger conservationist, but some other authors have used  "P. t. malayensis" instead of  '"P. t. Jacksoni". In the past, Malay tigers and Indochinese tigers were considered one and the same. In the wild, the Malayan tiger can live up to 20 years. 

    Malayan tiger's body is covered with orange fur but its underside is white in color. The stripes are thin and black. The average length of a male is about 8 feet and the weight can range from 48kg to 130kg. The female tiger weighs 25 to 88 kg and has a body length of about 7 feet. 

    Malayan tigers live in Peninsular Malaysia or  Malaya, which is part of Malaysia, a country in Southeast Asia. Their favorite natural habitat is tropical forests.

    The breeding season of the Malayan tigers occurs between November and March. After 100 days of gestation, the female tiger gives to two to four cubs.

    Malayan tigers hunt and eat barking deer or rib-faced deer, sambar deer,  serow, sun bears, wild boar, Bornean bearded pigs as well as young elephants and rhinoceros calves.

    Habitat fragmentation is a serious threat due to development projects and agriculture. The other threat to the Malayan tigers is commercial poaching for their skin, meat, and tiger bone medicines. Since 2015, Malayan tigers have been listed as critically endangered by the IUCN Red List.  In November 2021, the Malaysia Cabinet announced the launch of nine conservation strategies to protect the Malay tigers and their natural habitat.

    South China tiger

    Types of Tigers

    The South China tiger is endemic to southern China and probably the most threatened tiger subspecies on the earth. They are also known as Amoy tiger and the scientific name is Panthera tigris amoyensis.  

    Their body is covered with short yellowish fur with broad black stripes. The stripes of the South China Tiger are very thick and are far from each other. The average length of a male  South China tiger is 230 to 265 cm, weight 130 to 175 kg. The length of the female is about 220 to 240 cm, and the weight will be 100 to 115 kg.

    In the past, the South China tiger lived in the forests and woodlands of Fujian province, Kwangtung province, Hunan province, and Jiangxi province in China. Some believe that all other tiger subspecies are evolved from this tiger

    South China tiger hunt and eat large ungulates, hog deer, wild boar, porcupines,  peafowl,  gray langur, sambar, serow, etc, and can eat 18–40 kg of meat at one meal.

    There is no specific mating season for southern China tigers, but the most common is between November and April. After 103 days of gestation, the female tiger gives birth to 3 to 6 cubs, weighing around 1kg. When the cubs reach 18 to 24 months of age, they are separated from their mother.

    In the 1950s, the South China tiger population exceeded 4,000 in the wild. Due to uncontrolled hunting, widespread deforestation, and a potential reduction in available prey, their number was decreased. By 1987, an estimated 30-40 South China tigers were left in the wild, so the threat of extinction was imminent. In 2001, field surveys were conducted in eight protected areas in five provinces of south-central China but found no evidence of tigers

    As of March 1986, there were  23 males and 14 females pure South China tigers in a collection of 17 Chinese zoos. In 2019, an estimated 150 southern Chinese tigers were in captivity in China. The Save China's Tigers project aims to recover natural habitat and rewilds the critically endangered South China tiger, both in China and in South Africa. The project has also been very successful in breeding and 14 cubs have been born, of which 11 have survived, at Laohu Valley Reserve and may be introduced into the wild in the near future.

    Sumatran tiger

    Types of Tigers

    The Sumatran tiger is native to the Sunda Islands and is the only surviving tiger population of Panthera tigris sondaica. 

    Their body is covered with dark orange fur with broad stripes and the frequency of the stripes is higher than that of the other subspecies. Their neck mane is short but cheek hair is long. Because of their isolated island habitat, and being confined to a small environment, the Sumatran tiger may have evolved into a smaller species, a form of phyletic dwarfism known as insular dwarfism. The average length of the male tiger is around 85 to 100in, weighing  100 to 140 kg. Whereas the average length of the female tiger is around 85 to 90in, weighing  75 to 110 kg. Sumerian tigers can live up to 12 years in the wild and more than 15 years in captivity.

    Sumatran tigers are excellent runners and swimmers. They can jump in the air up to a height of about 16 feet from the ground and can cover a distance of about 27 feet.

    As a solitary animal, the Sumatran tiger lives in the rainforests of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. They are found in the forests of  Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, Gunung National Park as well as in Kerinci Seblat National Park in central Sumatra. Their favorite natural habitats are hill forests, lowland, and uncultivated forests. They tend to choose areas with high altitudes, and low annual rainfall, as well as areas closer to water, away from forest edges, and near forest centers. As of 2011, there were 165–190 Sumatran tigers in the Kerinci Seblat National Park in central Sumatra which has the highest tiger occupancy rate with 83% which is more than anywhere else on the island. About 400 to 600 Sumatran tigers live in the wild.

    Male Sumatran tigers become sexually mature at 4 or 5 years of age but females at about 3 to 4 years of age. Mating can occur from November to April. After 100-108 days of the gestation period, a female tiger gives birth to 2 to 3 cubs.

    Sumatran tigers kill and eat sambar,  lesser mouse-deer,  pig-tailed macaque, banded pig,  Malayan porcupine, great argus, Indian muntjac, tapir, monkeys, wild boar, as well as fish.

    A major threat to this smallest tiger subspecies is poaching for their skin, bones, canines, and whiskers. Sumatran tigers are also killed by the farmers for preventing livestock losses. Lack of prey base and deforestation are other threats to Sumatran tigers. They lose their natural habitat due to deforestation and expansion of acacia plantations, and palm oil plantations. The largest tiger population in Kerinci Seblat National Park in Sumatra is threatened by high rates of deforestation in its outlying areas.

    In 2008, Sumatran tigers are classified as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List. Hunting is banned in Indonesia to protect the Sumerian tigers and anyone who hunts tigers can be jailed and fined heavily. In June 1995, the Sumatra Tiger Project (STP) was launched to ensure the long-term viability of this tiger population in and around the Way Kambas National Park in southern Sumatra. For the conservation of Sumatran tigers, the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry and Safari Park has established a collaboration with Australia Zoo in 2007.

    Extinct Tiger Subspecies

    Caspian tiger

    The Caspian tiger is an extinct population of Panthera tigris tigris. According to the IUCN, the last Caspian tiger was seen in the wild in the early 1970s and The extinction of this population was assessed in 2003. In 1970, the last known tiger was killed near Uludere Hakkari district, Turkey. Recent studies by scientists have found that the Caspian tiger's DNA is almost identical to that of a Siberian tiger. Other names for Caspian tigers were Turanian tigers, Balkhash tigers, or Mazandaran tigers.

    The body of the Caspian tiger was covered with bright and thickest fur but the belly and beard were white. The color of their stripes was black or brown which were narrower, fuller, and more closely set. The color of his chest and abdomen was white with yellow stripes. The average body length of a male Caspian tiger is about 270–295 cm, with a weight of about 170–240 kg. While the length of the female was 240-260 cm and the weight was 85-135 kg. 

    Historical records show that the Caspian tigers were found in  Mount Ararat,  Siirt Province, Şırnak Province, and Hakkari Provinces in Turkey; Mesopotamia, the areas between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea, Uyghurstan region of China as well as Russia and Ukraine.

    The Caspian tigers hunt and eat ungulates, wild boar, reed deer, wild pigs, roe deer, Bactrian deer, cheetahs, mouflons,  wolves, gazelles, jackals, jungle cats, locusts, etc. They also eat moose, mountain sheep, wild horses, and also fish.

    The most important predator of tigers is humans. Caspian tigers were the cause of extinction being hunted by military soldiers and sportsmen. Wild pigs and deer were the primary prey of the Caspian tigers which were undergoing rapid decline due to deforestation and subsistence hunting because of the increasing human population along the rivers, and agricultural developments as well as falling prey to various diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and hog cholera; and dying in floods and forest fires. For these reasons, the Caspian tigers did not get their prey.

    In 1938, Tigrovaya Balka which is the first protected area was established in Tajikistan where a Caspian tiger was sighted in 1958. Since 1957, Caspian tigers were protected in Iran with fined heavily for shooting. Scientists conducted a genetic test between 2010 and 2012, which showed that Caspian and Amur tigers have a close genetic relationship. Based on this experiment, a new study published in the Journal of Biological Conservation plans to reintroduce the Caspian tigers in the Ili River delta in southeastern Kazakhstan and Balkhash Lake in Central Asia. If the project is officially pursued and prey resumption goes well, this legendary animal could once again roam Kazakhstan's reed bushes by 2033.

    Bali tiger (Panthera tigris balica)

    The Bali tiger is an extinct population of subspecies Panthera tigris sondaica. The Bali tiger was the smallest subspecies among the 9 subspecies of tigers and the first extinct subspecies of the tiger. Other names of these tigers in the Balinese language were Harimau Bali and Samong.

    The Bali tiger was endemic to the Indonesian island of Bali where they roamed in mangrove forests, savannah vegetation as well as dunes. Their main preys were Sunda sambar,  Monkeys, Red Junglefowl as well as Monitor Lizards. 

    Bali tigers were never kept in captivity or displayed in public zoos, but in the 20th century, only seven skins and skulls were preserved in museums. The largest collection is in the British Museum in London, consisting of two skins and three skulls. The remnants of the last known Bali tiger are in the Zoological Museum of Bogor, Indonesia. The length of the body including the tail of a male tiger was up to 230cm, weighing up to 220 pounds. While the length of the female tigers was up to 210cm, weighing up to 180 pounds. Their body was covered with short bright orange fur with fewer stripes. The most distinctive feature was the bar-type pattern on the Bali tiger's head. 

     The main reason for the extinction of Bali tigers was the loss of their habitat due to human settlement and demand for agricultural land, resulting in less territory and less prey. After the Dutch took control over Bali, the Bali tiger hunt began. 

    On September 27, 1937, the last known Bali tiger was an adult female, killed in SumbarKima, West Bali. Although the sighting of this subspecies likely survived into the 1940s, it has never been proven. Records suggest that this subspecies may have become extinct by the end of World War II.

    In 1941, the "West Bali National Park" was established to protect the Bali tigers from extinction. 

    Javan Tiger

    Javan tiger was an extinct population of Panthera tigris sondaica. This subspecies lived on the Indonesian island of Java. This was a small-sized tiger and the average body length of a male was about 250cm and weight was up to 300 pounds. The male Javan tiger was larger than the female. They lived in the remote montane and forested areas of East Java. Their main preys were wild boar, Javan rusa, waterfowl, reptiles as well as tembadua. The reason for the extinction of the Javan tiger was the establishment of rice fields due to the ample supply of the growing human population. So the people were cut down the forest to create the agricultural field and  15% out of 23% of forested areas was destroyed. In different areas, the tigers started killing by poisoning which was increased at the beginning of the 20th century. They had lost their natural habitat and were not able to find their prey due to severe deforestation. During the 1960s, their main prey, Javan rusa, which was died of disease.

    Tiger is the largest cat that belongs to the family Felidae. These majestic animals have orange fur with black stripes. As carnivores and top predators, they like to kill and eat ungulates as well as fish, young elephants, monkeys, etc. All tiger subspecies are classified as Endangered by the ICUN Red List. The major threats to the tigers are deforestation, poaching, urbanization, habitat destruction, etc. India has the largest population of wild tigers in the world. It is estimated that about 13000 tigers are living on the earth and about 5000 tigers are in the wild.

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  • Bulbul DebnathAuthor / Editor