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    Mahatma Gandhi, the country has honoured him as the “Father of the nation”.Rabindranath has conferred on him the title of “Mahatma” (Great Soul)......

    Mahatma Gandhi

    Essay on Mahatma Gandhi

    Mahatma Gandhi, the country has honored him as the “Father of the nation”.

    Rabindranath has conferred on him the title of “Mahatma” (Great Soul), but man is not a powerful king, not a great warrior, in Churchill’s language, he is half-naked Fakir. He was a man of great personality. Gandhiji’s thunderous proclamation of “Quit India” or “Karenge ya Marenge” brought a wave of patriotism to India. 

    Mahatma Gandhi’s Early Life

    On 2nd October, 1869, Mahatma Gandhi was born in Porbander, Gujarat in a Hindu Modh Baniya family. His real name was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Gandhiji’s father Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi (Manasmohan Kaba Gandhi) was “diwan” (chief minister) of Porbandar State and his mother Putlibai was a true devotee of God. Kaba Gandhi and Putlibai had three sons, named Laxmidas (1866-1914), Karsandas (1866-1913), Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. They had a daughter named Raliatbehn (1862-1960)

    In his childhood, Gandhiji was restless and spent his time by playing and roaming around. The Indian stories of Shravana Kumar and King Harishchandra affected his mind.

    At the age of nine, Gndhiji started his studies in a local school in Rajkot. When he was eleven years old, he was admitted to the High School in Rajkot. He was shy in nature and was an average student. He won some prizes also. He likes to read books and school lessons.

    In May, 1883, at the age of 13, Gandhiji married Kasturbai Makhanji Kapadia (Kasturba). When Gandhiji was 16 years old, his father was died (1885). Gandhiji and his wife Kasturba had four sons, Hiralal (1888); Manilal (1892); Ramdas (1897) and Devdas (1900).

    Mahatma Gandhi In London

    In 1887, Gandhiji graduated at the age of 18. He wanted to become a doctor but his father wanted him to go to London to study law. On 4th September 1888, he went to London and took admission in the University College, London (UCL) where he studied law and jurisprudence. Gandhiji studied law at the Inner Temple, London. On 22nd June 1891, he called to the Bar. Gandhiji stayed in London from 1888 to 1891. He became the barrister.

     Mahatma Gandhi In South Africa

    In June 1891, at the age of 22, Mahatma Gandhiji came back India. When he returned India, his mother was died. He started practice law in Bombay (Mumbai). A Muslim merchant, Dada Abdullah’s niece needed a lawyer so Abdullah contacted Gandhiji. He accepted the job and went to Natal, South Africa.

     In South Africa, when Mahatma Gandhiji entered the Durban courtroom, the white British ordered him to remove his turban but Gandhiji refused to do so and left the courtroom.

    On 7th June 1893, Mahatma Gandhiji was travelling to Pretoria, South Africa, in the first – class railway compartment. Then a white man saw him and ordered him to go back of the train as it was reserved for only white people and no Indians and Black people was not allowed in that compartment. Gandhiji had ticket for first- class compartment so he refused to go back. Then the white man threw him off on the platform of Pietermaritzburg. These incidents affected him very much and decided to protest against radical discrimination. He stayed there about 20 years and developed his political views.  To improve the conditions of the Indians in South Africa, Mahatma Gandhi worked hard and established “Natal Indian Congress” on 22 May, 1894.

    Mahatma Gandhi’s Contribution to the Freedom Struggle of India

    In 1915, Gandhiji returned to India and joined the Indian National Congress. In 1918, there was a famine in Kheda and farmers demanded relief from tax. Gandhiji protested against the increasing tax on the farmers by the British. Gandhiji was arrested and put him into jail where he started hunger strike. Thousands of people gathered around the jail and supported him. They addressed Mahatma Gandhi as “Bapu”. Gandhiji and all the prisoners were released. In 13th April, 1919 in Jalianwala Bagh at Amritsar, a crowd of people including women and children were gathered. Then a British General Reginald Dyer and his troops fired guns on the unarmed crowed and killed nearly 400 people. After Amritsar Massacre, Mahatma Gandhi launched “SWARAJ”, a campaign which means self-rule; and non-cooperation with the British. Gandhiji urged every Indian to use own goods instead of British goods.

    In 1930, Mahatma Gandhiji started “Satyagraha”, the Salt March to Dandi to break the Salt Laws. This march was started on 12th March and ended on 6th April.

    When the Second World War broke out, Mahatma Gandhi declared that India would not join the war without independence. In 1942, Gandhiji started “Quit India” movement. He demanded for independence and called the British to Quit India with a speech in Mumbai. He urged Indians to “Karenge ya Marenge” (Do or Die) to get freedom. Gandhiji was arrested.

    In 22 February 1944, Gandhiji’s wife Kasturba Gandhi died and Gandhiji was released as he was suffered a severe malaria and failing health and necessary surgery. Mahatma Gandhiji called for the British to Quit India but the Muslim League demanded “Divide and Quit India”. In 1947, Britain agreed to grant India its independence but divided the country into two dominions: India and Pakistan.

     Mahatma Gandhi’s Death

    In January 1948, Mahatma Gandhiji attended a prayer meeting at Birla House in Delhi and then, at 5:17pm, he was shot by a Hindu nationalist, Nathuram Vinayak Godse. He fired three bullets from his pistol and Gandhiji died instantly. Godse was executed in 1949. Mahatma Gandhiji’s body was cremated at Rajkot, near the Yamuna River.


    Mahatma Gandhi’s non-violent movement and Satyagraha influenced many other leaders such as Nelson Mandela, Martin Luther in their struggle for freedom and social justice. Mahatma Gandhi’s all movements were based on truth and non-violence.

     Mahatma Gandhi was given the title the “Man of the Year” by The Time Magazine in 1930. Mahatma Gandhi was nominated five times for “Nobel Peace Prize” between the years 1937 to 1948 but he refused to accept the award.

    On 2nd October, India celebrates “Gandhi Jayanti” and according to the world wise, 2nd October is the “International Day of Non-violence”.

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